In computer science, there are often many ways to obtain the same result. And this is true when it comes to writing a program. Depending on the programming language, different styles could be used. In this post, we will see how to write a simple program in Scala : decomposing a number using base 10.


The most obvious implementation seems to be a simple loop, because most of us learned to program in iterative style.

def decompose(n: Int): List[Int] = {
  var history = List[Int]()
  var next = n
  while (next > 0) {
    history = next % 10 :: history
    next = next / 10

What are the cons ?

Immutable programs are easier to reason about. Here, there is mutability but it remains local to the method. Nevertheless, it makes the code a bit fragile. For example, if we switch the two lines inside the while instruction, the result becomes wrong.


It exists an interesting property : we can rewrite any loop with a recursive call. This refactoring, Replace Iteration with Recursion, is described in the great catalog of refactorings written by Martin Fowler.

The main trick is to pass variables that are modified inside the loop as parameters of the function.

def decompose(n: Int): List[Int] = decompose(n, Nil)

def decompose(n: Int, history: List[Int]): List[Int] = {
  if (n > 0) {
    decompose(n / 10, n % 10 :: history)
  } else

Going further

In the recursive approach, two concerns are still mixed : the computation and the history.

Scala 2.13 introduced a new method Iterator.unfold that we can take advantage of. Let’s start with an intuition : fold allows converting multiple values into a single value (like a sum). unfold is the opposite : convert a single value into multiple values.

The documentation says :

def unfold[A, S](init: S)(f: (S) => Option[(A, S)]): Iterator[A]
    Creates an Iterator that uses a function f to produce elements of type A 
    and update an internal state of type S.

So we have to determine what are elements of type A and what is the internal state. As often, it may be solved by following the types. We are interested in remainders, so they are elements of type A. And the internal state is the next number to consider.

def decompose(n: Int): List[Int] =
    .unfold(n) { n =>
      if (n > 0) { Some(n % 10, n / 10) } else None


There are really many ways to implement even such a trivial program. Scala offers a rich collection API and so we can replace custom code by a built-in function, which increases readability and reduces the surface for bugs.